The utilization of existing methods of mechanics for strength analysis of the structures made of dispersed-reinforced materials is considered and advantages of the multilevel approach to the solution of applied problems are discussed. Possibilities of modification of Takanayaga’s model (taking into account an interphase layer and using of compound inclusion technique) for the purpose of thorough description of elastic and plastic properties of the disperse-reinforced composites are considered. In frame of the modified model, the method of determination of effective elastic characteristics (Young modulus, Poisson’s ratio) and an yield limit of the materials filled by disperse particles is developed. Dependences of the specified parameters on the volume content of filler are obtained. The comparison of developed technique results with estimates, calculated by use of four-phase model as well as classic (not modified) variant of Takanayaga’s model, is performed.