Filled elastomers (rubbers) are composite materials distinguished by complex structure and specific properties, connected with interactions of filler and binding in the vicinity of filler surface. In work the structural phenomenological model of viscoelastic behavior of rubber is developed. Besides plastic, elastic and viscous elements the new kind of elements – transmission element is presented. It connects structural deformations of a matrix with deformation of a material. Comparison with experiment has shown good reproducibility of softening effect and viscoelastic behavior of rubber in a wide range of amplitudes of deformation. Evaluation of unknown constants of model is broken into independent stages that essentially simplify practical realization.