This paper is devoted to description of the behavior of composites that contain active elements made from shape-memory alloys. The systems discussed are a unidirectional composite uniformly reinforced with active fibers and a sandwich beam with active outer layers. New micromechanical constitutive equations for shape-memory alloys are used to describe the behavior of the active elements. Conditions for creation of a closed designed-in two-way shape-memory effect for composites of these types are derived in analytic form. It is shown that adequate description of the behavior of active composites requires solution of a coupled problem, with consideration of the effects of operating stresses on the phase composition of the shape-memory alloy and the variability of its elastic moduli.