The work consists of two parts. In Part I, a brief review of publications on development of gas detectors of ultraviolet and visible photons constructed of composite sensing elements is presented. Constructions and principles of operation of these detectors are described. The main attention is paid to the methods of protection of composite materials against oxygen and water vapors. The fields of application of new detectors are discussed. In Part II, the newest results in development of porous composite structures and their application for construction of detectors of elementary particles will be presented.