Based on a local averaging of strain thermoelastic fields on macrolevel of a composite with random structure of compound or hollow inclusions, we present the statement of averaged problem of thermoelasticity in generalized method of self-consistency. We derive the expressions for the coefficients of differential operator of averaged boundary-value problem of thermoelasticity and make an analysis of their structure. It is proven that rejection of the assumption of homogeneity of strain fields and using of real inhomogeneous distribution of strains on a microlevel does not bring us to the change of the averaged boundary-value problem. We analyze in detail the statement of the averaged boundary-value problem of thermoelasticity. We obtain numerical solution of the averaged boundary-value problem of thermoelasticity of the generalized method of self-consistency and calculate the effective thermoelastic characteristics of a macroisotropic spheroplast with random structure of two-phase inclusions. There presents the comparison of the results with the known solutions derived by the other authors.