This study explores the reinforcement of an elastomeric binder by carbon black particles using the developed structural-mechanical model of composite. For modeling purposes, the volume filled with fractal clusters surrounded by an elastomeric matrix has been investigated. Spherical particles of clusters are joined together by highly elastic bonds formed by interfacial layers with specific properties. The structural parameters of the model are obtained by analyzing the AFM images of filled rubber samples. The force response of bonds to loading is determined by solving the pair interaction problem using the finite element method.