Widespread introduction of a modification of the properties of polymers in their composition of various kinds of fillers. Polymer-filler system is regarded in most cases as a black box, which relates to control parameters – dispersion, composition, filler concentration, technological conditions, etc. – Physico-mechanical characteristics of the resulting compositions. The paper based on the analysis of a representative volume of the material of continuum mechanics evaluated the contribution of each of the characteristics of the material structure on the parameters appearing in it stress-strain state (SSS) and deformation-strength properties of the composition as a whole. Particular attention is drawn to the existence and properties of interfacial layers and their contribution to the change in the macro characteristics of the material.